What is ADHD in children?
Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) have difficulty in concentration and therefore cannot always cope with school tasks. They make careless mistakes, do not pay attention and do not listen to explanations. Sometimes they may be excessive mobility, spin, stand up, make a lot of unnecessary actions, rather than to sit quietly and concentrate on their studies or other activities. Such behavior is unacceptable in the classroom and creates problems both at school and at home. These children often have poor academic performance, and are often considered mischievous, naughty, "terrorizing" family and peers at school. At the same time, they may suffer from low self-esteem, it is difficult to have friends. In fact, the reason for the above behavior is the lack of certain active substances in some parts of the brain.
Does ADHD occur often?
According to American Psychiatric Association, ADHD is a common disorder, which occurs in 3-7% of school-age children.
Is the behavior of ADHD in children different from other children?
Features of behavior in ADHD symptoms are divided into three categories:
1. Inattention. These children are easily distracted, forgetful, hard to focus their attention. They have problems with the execution of tasks, learning disabilities, organization and compliance with regulations. It seems that they do not listen when they say something. They often make mistakes due to carelessness, losing their school supplies and other things.
2. Hyperactivity. Children seem to be impatient, excessively sociable, fussy, cannot long sit. In class they seek to break away from the place at the wrong time. Figuratively speaking, they are always moving somewhere.
3. Impulsivity. Very often in the classroom, children with this disorder shout the answer before the teacher has finished his question, constantly interrupt when others say they find it difficult to wait their turn. If they want something, they have to get it at the same time. Your doctor has all the necessary information and can make the correct ADHD test, based on its available diagnostic criteria.
How to identify ADHD?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is detected, if the child's behavior differs from that of other children of the same age and level of development for quite a long time, at least 6 months. These behaviors occur up to 7 years, in the future, they manifest themselves in different social situations and the negative impact on family relations. If signs of ADHD are significant, this leads to social exclusion of the child in school and at home. The child must be thoroughly examined by a doctor to rule out other diseases that can also condition the behavior of these violations. Depending on the underlying disorders, doctors can diagnose disorder with predominance of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, or a combination type.
ADHD in adults
Adult ADHD may have difficulty with performance of the instructions, remembering information, the ability to focus, planning and execution of tasks in a short time. If you do not get rid of these problems properly, they may contribute to the behavioral, emotional, social issues, as well as difficulties in the work and study. The following characteristics and behavioral problems may be a direct consequence of ADHD symptoms in adults or similar opportunistic difficulties: anxiety, permanent forgetfulness and punctuality, low self-esteem, problems with employment, anger control, impulsiveness, alcoholism, poor organizational skills, low resistance to stress, difficulties of concentration when reading, depression, mood swings, problems in relationships with people.
What methods are effective in the ADHD treatment?
For the treatment there are still used ADHD medications as stimulants that contain amphetamines (Adderall) and methylphenidate. Patients are prescribed medications and other groups, as norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (Atomoxetine, Strattera), antihypertensive (Clonidine) and tricyclic antidepressants (Elavil, Asendin, Remeron, Pamelor, Sinequan and many others). The choice depends on the specific manifestations of ADD symptoms, additional risks (the propensity to addiction or comorbid psychiatric disorders) and the desire to avoid those or other side effects. Specialists think that cognitive-behavioral therapy helps with ADHD, which, unlike many other psychotherapeutic schools, puts the emphasis on working with the consciousness, not unconscious. For a long time this method has been successfully used in the fight against depression and anxiety disorder - and there are now special programs for the therapy of attention deficit disorder. The essence of this therapy is to develop awareness and not let irrational patterns of behavior take over human life. Studies help control impulses and emotions, cope with stress, to plan and organize their actions.
ADHD complicates the life of a child:
- It is difficult to go to school, child does not get on well, other children and adults condemn him.
- Children with ADHD get injuries and damage more often in comparison with healthy children.
- Kids have low self-esteem.
- They are more difficult to interact with peers and adults.
- They have an increased risk of alcohol abuse, drug trafficking and other forms of deviant behavior.
Disorder by itself does not cause other psychological or physical illness. However, in children are more likely to develop the following conditions:
- Learning difficulties, including problems of understanding and communication.
- Anxiety disorders, which leads to too strong feelings, nervousness and worsening of ADHD symptoms.
- Bipolar disorder, which combines depression and manic behavior.
- Oppositional defiant disorder.
- Conduct disorders, antisocial behavior, including the propensity to theft, fights, property damage, harm to humans and animals.
- Tourette syndrome.