General characteristics of allergy
Allergy is an overreaction of the body to exposure to certain environmental factors and stimulants that are perceived as potentially dangerous. The immunity answer on any antigens invading the body is very complicated and involves the antibodies production, which are the defenders of the organism. However, there are situations when immune system "loses control" and starts to perceive a completely harmless antigen as dangerous. The unfavorable ecological situation, an increase in emissions of industrial waste, domestic use with unusual for the body of chemicals, increased intake of dietary supplements and medicines - all contribute to a sharp increase in the incidence, especially in recent decades.
What do you learn about types of allergies?
People throughout life are most often found with six varieties of allergic diseases:
- Respiratory allergies, the cause of which, are minor allergens, are around us (pollen, animal hair and dander, molds, dust mite allergy, odors of paint tools). Seasonal hypersensitivity (to pollen, the cold) occurs in summer or winter (seasonal allergies).
- Skin allergies are the cause of which the drugs (such as antibiotics), cosmetics, household chemicals (detergents), food products, having a direct effect on the skin or enter the body through the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract, dogs allergies. The result of exposure to the agents is the development of allergic: atopic dermatitis (exudative diathesis), urticaria, contact dermatitis. The development of allergic skin itches. Manifestations of pathology: the appearance of rashes on the face, cheeks, eyelids, neck, back, hands on type of hives, blisters, burning, swelling of the eyes, peeling, dry skin on the type of eczema, fever.
- Food allergies in adults and children that occur when consuming foods containing allergic ingredients. Allergy symptoms can be manifested by nausea, epigastric pain, angioedema, urticaria, in severe disease - anaphylactic shock. Causes may include hypersensitivity to cow's, milk allergy, chocolate, honey, sweets (confectionery), citrus fruits, bananas, nuts, fish, gluten allergy, egg whites, chicken, tea (exotic), juice.
- Allergies to insect bites, occurs when human contact with wasps, bees, hornets, mosquitoes. Signs of an allergic disease are local reaction of the skin in the form of swelling, redness. The general reaction accompanied by allergic reaction symptoms are weakness, dizziness, hypotension, dyspnea, urticaria. Inhalation of fine particles of insects (such as dust mites, cockroaches) may be the cause of asthma.
- Drug allergies are often antibiotics, analgesics, vitamins, possible reactions to the vaccine (with vaccination against influenza, tick-borne encephalitis, hepatitis). The manifestations of allergic reaction: to preparations, from local reactions, coughing, asthma attacks, to severe functional disorders of the kidneys and liver. In severe disease there is possible anaphylactic shock.
- Allergy of infectious etiology, the cause of which may be conditionally pathogenic bacteria and infectious agents. Unfavorable course of allergies may develop infectious-allergic asthma.
Diet for allergies
Compliance with the rules of a balanced diet in allergic diseases is the basis of effective therapy (food allergy testing). Foods containing potential allergens are eliminated from the diet. In many cases, limit consumption of citrus fruits, chocolate, sweets, sausages, honey, facilitates allergy relief symptoms.
Pathology of pregnancy and lactation
During pregnancy and lactation there is a significant alteration of the immune system of woman, which can lead to inadequate immune response to previously well carried substances. This period there may be a manifestation of allergic reactions to household chemicals, vitamins, antibiotics, food. Timely treatment by your doctor will help to identify the cause of the pathology, choose an effective treatment with allergy medicine. Not timely initiated therapy may adversely affect the health of the fetus and newborn.
Features of immunity in children
In children, there is an active formation of the child's immune system. Imperfection of immunity in children can cause hypersensitivity to various allergens: vitamins, citrus, honey, sweet juices, mix solid foods, breast milk. Treatment of patients in childhood should take place only under the supervision of the attending pediatrician. Allergy symptoms in children are similar to the signs of allergies in adults: redness; rash on the body, cheeks; flaking and irritation of skin cheeks (diathesis); excessive sweating, even in cases of mild overheating; persistent diaper rash; hives; peeling on the hairy part of the head and eyebrows; different manifestations of digestive disorders; angioedema (sudden swelling of mucous membranes, skin, subcutaneous tissue); wheezing. It is necessary to make allergy testing. In particular, it is recommended to keep a food diary and also make it records regarding the reaction of the body of the child to a variety of foods; specific tests. The manifestation of baby allergies should be distinguished from pseudo allergic reactions that often indicate irregularities in the condition of the digestive tract.
Methods for the allergy treatment
An integrated approach to treatment of the disease allows in many cases to achieve stable remission. There is a variety of allergy remedies as tablets (Xyzal, Zyrtec, Phenergan, Periactin, Relent, Haridra, Claritin, Clarinex, Allegra, Benadryl) ointments, sprays (Rhinocort, Nasonex, Flonase, Astelin), allergy eye drops (Optivar, Patanol), bronchodilators (Xopenex, Theophylline, Ventolin, Symbicort, Combivent, Atrovent, Advair) helping to choose the individual treatment program. Specific immune prophylaxis, appointed by a qualified allergist, is the use of immunoglobulin to reduce the body's hypersensitivity to identify the allergen. Allergies can cause the development of other diseases (urticaria, eczema, angioedema, asthma, etc.). In this case, it may require a different treatment.