Bronchial asthma - symptoms and causes, treatment and complications of disease
At bronchial asthma patient may experience sudden attacks of breathlessness that is characterized by clear and difficult increases of expiration phase. Attacks of cough and apnoea occur against the background of full health state. Typical asthma symptoms in adults are elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood, a positive effect of adrenaline on the body. Asthma is a classic infectious and allergic disease, which means that the infection starts with allergy, located in the lower and upper airways. Both men and women are equally likely to fall ill of asthma. Diagnosis and asthma treatment should be conducted under the direction of ENT physician in special clinics. Often the first asthma attack is observed in the first year of life. Therapy should be careful, you need a constant therapeutic effect under the supervision of specialists. In children bronchial asthma at an early ages is especial, and is often confused with diseases such as whooping cough, bronchopneumonia. In elderly attacks are not severe, but the prevalent phenomenon of chronic asthmatic bronchitis.
Factors influencing the occurrence of asthma
What causes asthma? We know a great many factors that increase the risk of illness. These include:
- The presence of asthma in close relatives (brothers, sisters or parents).
- Other allergic diseases as allergic rhinitis (hay fever) or dermatitis.
- Tobacco smoking.
- Prenatal exposure to tobacco (mother smoked during pregnancy).
- Effects of industrial exhaust gases and smog.
- Inhalation of harmful substances at work: chemical laboratories, pharmacies, beauty salons, industrial production, etc.
- Exposure to certain bacterial and viral infections as well as parasites.
- Low birth weight.
Seasonal fluctuations of disease incidence and recurrence of asthma
The most suitable condition of the patient is noted in both periods from February to August. Since September attacks tend to become more frequent and more likely to appear in the month of January. Most people with signs of asthma suffer from increased sensitivity to heat or cold, have accompanying diseases of ear, nose and throat. For example, otitis media, adenoids, vasomotor rhinitis, nasal polyps, sinusitis, tonsillitis, all this leads to an overload of bronchial and nasal breathing malfunction. 80% of patients in the diagnosis of asthma are observed symptoms of tuberculosis. Patients with bronchial asthma have an increased non-specific sensitivity to tuberculosis. Nervous system plays an important role for asthma, but not decisive. Infection plays not only principle but also a great role in practice. It is known that the first attack occurs against a background of previously postponed diseases such as pneumonia, influenza, sore throat or other infection. Doctors note that there is a need to find infection in the tonsils, nasal cavity and pharynx, bronchi, mouth, intestine and gall bladder. In bronchial asthma also have an effect such hormonal endocrine factors such as thyroid, reproductive system in men and women, pituitary-adrenal system. In conclusion, the pathogenesis and etiology of asthma should be noted that the main diseases and the main cause is the imbalance power of an organism as a whole.
How does it develop?
The most characteristic asthma symptoms are:
- asthma cough - may be frequent, painful and permanent. The cough may get worse at night, after physical effort, after inhaling cold air;
- expiratory dyspnea (with a primary difficulty in exhaling), shortness of breath - the breath may be so limited that it causes fear of inability to breathe;
- wheezing, audible at a distance - are caused by the vibration of the air with the force passing through narrowed airways;
Bronchial asthma treatment
Treatment consists of the following areas:
- as far as possible to avoid contact with the factor that causes the attack, for that every patient with bronchial asthma with your doctor should make a list of these factors;
- timely therapy of diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract, digestive diseases (including biliary tract);
- strict adherence to asthma action plan, a certain doctor.
Medications for bronchial asthma are divided into means of quick action, used to stop an asthma attack (an asthma inhaler form – Xopenex, Ventolin, Symbicort, Serevent, Flovent, Atrovent, Advair and many others) and corticosteroids (Prednisolone, Medrol, Sterapred and so on), inhaled anticholinergics (Pulmicort, Spiriva and others). Antihistaminic means (Benadryl, Clarinex, Allegra, Haridra, Claritin, Phenergan, Xyzal, Zyrtec, Vasaka, so on) are also prescribed under illness. Doses and home remedies for asthma should be determined by your doctor. Independent modification of dosages is unacceptable. A patient with bronchial asthma should always have a fast-acting drug. Each patient should be aware that frequent use of high-speed asthma inhalers is unacceptable, because it can lead to a severe attack of breathlessness – asthmatic status. By reducing the effects of commonly used medications humans have to consult a doctor urgently. Currently patients use a large number of other medicines, non-drug natural remedies for asthma - breathing exercises, acupuncture, fasting and many others, but choosing them you should be sure to consult with your doctor.
Complications and prevention of asthma
If you do not pay proper attention to disease, in the absence of adequate therapy asthma is not only progressed, but also developing its severe complications. All the complications of illness are divided into:
- acute or chronic respiratory (asthmatic status, spontaneous pneumothorax, pneumonia, lung hyperinflation, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary emphysema);
- metabolic (decreased potassium levels in the blood, metabolic acidosis, hypercapnia, or increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in it);
- heart (drop in blood pressure, sudden heart stop at the time of the attack, myocardial infarction);
- gastrointestinal (peptic ulcer or duodenal ulcer);
- brain (brain damage or respiratory encephalopathy);
- other pathologies.
Prevention of asthma should be carried out in childhood, especially in families where there is a predisposition to allergic diseases including allergy asthma. Patient should receive a timely treatment of chronic diseases of respiratory tract infections, smoking cessation, tempering procedures, compliance with food culture.