What happens in the body when hepatitis?
If there is an adequate immune response, the body will be free from the pathogen, the virus goes away and with hepatitis recover. This is what happens in hepatitis A and E, in most cases with hepatitis B. If the immune defense forces are not sufficient at a time when developing primary infection, the virus remains in the liver (persistence). The disease becomes chronic phase. This occurs when the hepatitis C, rarely in hepatitis B. Effects of long-term, even imperceptible, flow of viral hepatitis can be very dangerous and lead to irreversible outcomes. This is the main reason for which it is necessary to recognize and treat hepatitis. Today, many people living with HIV are diagnosed with hepatitis C. The presence of this type virus requires more careful attention to the daily life and health.
What are the causes of hepatitis?
There are many causes of hepatitis. The most common are:
- Viruses - are one of the main causes. Viral hepatitis develops as a result of infection hepatotropic (having an affinity to the cells of the liver) viruses. There are several types of hepatitis viruses, which differ in the method of hep ñ transmission rate of infection, disease manifestations, and its outcome.
- Alcohol - frequent and prolonged use of alcohol often leads to the development of alcoholic hepatitis. Ethanol has a damaging effect on all organs, including the liver. Frequent use of alcohol (alcoholism) leads to inflammation and destruction of liver tissue and replacement of dead fat cells (fatty liver).
- Medications - Some medications have hepatotoxicity, i.e. can cause damage and inflammation of the liver - medical hepatitis. The systematic use of certain drugs, such as Bayer ASA Aspirin (and other NSAIDs), cytostatics (methotrexate, etc.), anti viral, antibiotics, sulphonamides, antituberculosis drugs (Isoniazid) and many others can lead to the development of medical hepatitis. A characteristic feature of the preparation is to stop the disease after discontinuation of the remedy that caused hepatitis.
- Stagnation of bile - a violation of the outflow of bile from the liver is the cause of cholestatic hepatitis. One is the development of the liver bile, which plays an important role in the metabolism of fats. In case of violation of the outflow of bile hepatic lobules it stagnates in the liver, causing its inflammation - induced hepatitis.
Signs of hepatitis
Hepatitis symptoms reflect mainly damage and liver dysfunction. They include:
- weakness and fatigue;
- heaviness or discomfort in the abdomen;
- darkening of urine;
The above features are presented in chronological order. This means that the jaundice (skin discoloration, whites of the eyes, tongue) in acute hepatitis appears last when the sick feel better. Chronic hepatitis C symptoms and also B type are mild. Menacing consequence of chronic hepatitis is liver cirrhosis, and the appearance of ascites, the development of jaundice. Hepatic encephalopathy may be developed - brain damage from a breach of its activities.
How to treat hepatitis?
For the first symptoms of hepatitis A patients should have strict bed rest and drinking plenty of fluids - you must drink up to 3 liters of fluid a day. It is necessary to follow comprehensive therapeutic measures: take vitamins (Amalaki, Neurobion Forte, Silibinin, and many others), reception enterosorbents for removing signs of intoxication; appointed corticosteroids (Kenalog, and so on), the appointment of a diet, complete elimination of physical activity. For hepatitis B in the acute phase only apply detoxification measures for removing toxins from the body and restore the liver tissue. In the chronic phase, the doctor prescribes medication courses during exacerbation of the disease as antiviral (Ribavirin, Epivir, Ritomune, Retrovir, Atazanavir, Stavudine, Sustiva and some others), immunomodulators, diet food - fatty food restriction, fried foods and conservation, complete exclusion of alcoholic beverages. Is hepatitis ñ curable? If it has been diagnosed in the background of another illness, treatment should take place simultaneously with the main destination. The patients are assigned interferon preparation and nucleoside analogues, input intravenous glucose, ascorbic acid, regular washing of the intestine, complete elimination of any physical exertion, spa treatment.
Prevention of hepatitis
Viral hepatitis is a dangerous disease, to warn it easier, in many cases, easier than cure. Hepatitis A and E are fairly easy to prevent if you follow the basic rules of hygiene: wash your hands before eating and after using the toilet, do not eat unwashed food, and do not drink unboiled water from unknown sources. For children and adults at risk, there is a hepatitis a vaccine. Vaccination is carried out in case of an epidemic situation for type A before traveling. It is recommended to be vaccinated against hepatitis A employees of preschool institutions and physicians. As for hepatitis B, D, C, and the G, transmitted through infected blood of the patient, their prevention is somewhat different. First of all it is necessary to avoid contact with the blood of an infected person, and as for the transmission of hepatitis B virus is sufficient minimum amount of blood, the infection can occur when using a razor, nail scissors, etc. All these devices must be individual. With regard to the sexual transmission of the virus, it is less likely, but still possible, so sex with untested partners should take place only with the use of a condom. It increases the risk of contracting hepatitis intercourse during menstruation, deflowering, or other situations in which sexual intercourse is associated with the release of blood. For B type the most effective protection against infection is hepatitis b vaccine nowadays. Unfortunately, vaccines for the prevention of hepatitis C currently do not exist. Therefore its prevention is to prevent drug abuse, mandatory testing of donated blood, explanatory work among young people, etc.