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Measles disease - symptoms in adults and children, treatment

Measles measles(rubeola, morbilli, or red measles) is an acute infectious illness invoked by measles virus. The probability of infection in person who has not been ill and in contact with the infectious human is close to 100%. Most often children of preschool and school age are affected. It is transmitted by droplet infection - sneezing, coughing, talking or even breathing. It is also possible vertical measles transmission path - from a pregnant woman to the fetus. Adolescents and adults, who have not been previously sick and do not get rubella vaccine, remain extremely susceptible to this infection.

How is it possible to be infected with measles?

Measles is still common in different developing countries - especially in Africa and Asia. The most deadly measles outbreak occurs in countries experiencing natural disasters and conflicts, or returning to a normal life after such events. The source of infection is a sick person. Its characteristic feature is almost wholly susceptibility. This means that if a person previously has no contact with measles, but suddenly meet him or her, you will be sick almost. Measles virus penetrates the body through mucosa of upper respiratory tract and eyes. In addition, nervous system cells often suffer. After penetration of the virus into the body and to the first signs the disease extends from about one to three weeks. The patient becomes contagious with onset of symptoms within 10 days. The patient should be isolated for this period, and in healthy people and things the virus does not spread. If you have been ill with measles, the immune system remains for life.

Measles symptoms

Disease measlesis generally characterized by fever, intoxication, inflammation of mucous membranes of upper respiratory tract, skin rash, severe headache. This disease affects except vaccinated almost everyone, regardless of age. The diagnosis of "measles" is exhibited by a doctor on the basis of examination and contact information with the previously sick people. The incubation period lasts 9-11 days. In the early days of the disease temperature can rise, the overall condition is characterized by weakness, malaise, loss of appetite. There is a growing common cold, "barking" cough, inflamed mucous membrane of the eye. On the second day of illness on the palate pink petechial rash appears, and on the mucosa of cheeks, lips and gums - typical tiny whitish spots (Kopliks spots). On 4-5 day of illness rash appears on the scalp, face and behind ears. The next day, it spreads to the body, hands and also feet. Measles rash is generally an abundance of small reddish spots, which can become larger. Also disease is characterized by conjunctivitis, sometimes with purulent discharge, gluing eyelashes in the morning. In some patients there is the abdominal pain and diarrhea. Measles pictures can be seen online. The child is sleeping restlessly, refuses to eat. If there are no complications, on the 4th day patient feels better from the beginning of rashes. Rash is replaced by pigmentation or disappear.

What complications may appear after illness?

Nowadays, with proper therapy complications of disease are rare. Most children carry the disease without consequences. More common complications are in kids under one year, with low weight and allergies. The disease can be also complicated by affection of respiratory system: tracheitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia; eye - blepharitis, conjunctivitis; digestive system - indigestion; inflammation of middle ear is otitis media; stomatitis; hepatitis. The most severe complication of measles, which, fortunately, are rarely met, affect the brain - meningitis and encephalitis.

Measles treatment and care

Uncomplicated measles is treated at home, always under the supervision of a physician. In severe cases, it is possible hospitalization. Child doctor prescribes medication that helps to cope with the symptoms of infection, and support immune with vitamins (Riconia, Vitamin C, Supradyn, Vitamin A and so on), antipyretics (Bayer ASA Aspirin, Zupar, Panadol Extra, etc.); tablets or medicine to relieve cough; antihistamines (Benadryl, Allegra, Clarinex, Claritin, Zyrtec and others); vasoconstrictor nasal drops; eye ointments and drops (Acular, Ophthacare Eye Drops, Zaditor, Gentamicin Eye Drops, so on), etc. Antibiotics (Ampicillin, Ceclor, Amoxil, Amoxicillin, Suprax, Zithromax, Ofloxacin, Principen and many others) are appointed only when a secondary infection is joining and the development of complications (otitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, etc.). In the room with the sick child you need to do wet cleaning every day. Airing should be as often as possible. Curtain is better to keep the drawn, during measles there can be photophobia. Bed linen and pajamas should be fresh. Child must drink plenty of plain water, fruit compote, juice. Food is light, gentle: dairy products; vegetable soups; vegetable and fruit puree; pureed boiled meat (lean beef, chicken, turkey). After disease child has still weakness. Immune system is at least two months extremely susceptible to any infection. You must try to protect from unwanted contacts, load, stress, and exposure to cold, etc. Much attention should be paid to diet, consult with your doctor about taking vitamins.

Prevention and measles vaccine

The measleshuman who had been ill with measles, has retained immunity to infection - rare cases of recurrent disease. Babies under 6 months, who especially are breastfed, get sick with illness extremely rare. The main method of this infection preventing is active immunization. Vaccination is carried out twice: the first - at the age of 12-15 months, the second - 6 years old. Anyone who contacted with the patient, while previously is not sick and has no vaccine against this infection may conduct passive immunization. During the first days of exposure intravenous immunoglobulin can protect against disease or make it easier.

Measles during pregnancy

If the expectant mother is sick with measles, there is possible miscarriage or premature birth. A child may be born small and even (unconfirmed) with developmental disabilities. Vaccination or revaccination against measles should be done for women who do not have measles antibodies, at least one month before conception, during pregnancy it cannot be carried out. If a pregnant woman has no immunity against infection, and has been in contact with the patient, during the first days there should be carried out passive immunization with immunoglobulin.