The basic about pneumonia
Pneumonia unites the whole group of illnesses which occur in pulmonary inflammation. What causes pneumonia? This process is caused by the germs (staphylococci, pneumococci, and other), viruses (influenza, adenovirus), fungi, or protozoa. It is also possible the inflammation development by inhalation of gases, toxic substances, and other hazardous chemicals. In most cases development of viral pneumonia is because of weakening of the body's defenses. This can be due to colds, viral disease, medication, reduced immunity. Humans, who suffered the higher risk of pneumonia, are aged people, individuals with comorbid conditions (diabetes, chronic lung disease, alcoholism, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, etc .), patients with recently undergone surgery, humans who have congenital disorders of respiratory system, weakened immune systems.
How is it possible to suspect pneumonia?
The first clinical pneumonia symptoms in adults include malaise, sweating, drowsiness, fatigue, body aches, muscle pain (myalgia), paresthesia (pain when touched), headache, fever (first to subfebrile digits, and then to febrile). Signs of pneumonia may also be accompanied by sickness, vomiting, diarrhea. After pathognomonic symptoms as cough, chest pain, feelings short of breath, shortness of breath join. Cough is dry at first, then sputum. Usually it is slimy and mucopurulent. A person feels chest pain when inhaling. Feeling of short of breath and dyspnea can appear during exercise and at rest. It depends on the degree of respiratory insufficiency. In recent years, there are more and more common asymptomatic forms of the disease. They are characterized by the absence of cough and shortness of breath, having only general symptoms (fever, weakness). Such pneumonia is dangerous with late diagnosis and treatment, thus developing more complications.
Types of pneumonia
- Croupous pneumonia appears due to the sharp supercooling, and is accompanied by rapidly rising body temperature, difficulty breathing, headaches, discomfort in the chest, loosening. The symptoms of pneumonia can quickly develop into an abscess, sepsis or cause defects of the heart muscle that often leads to death.
- Focal form of disease is usually accompanied by bronchitis or another disease of the respiratory system, and its symptoms are not as bright as that of croupous. The patient notes the presence of a weak cough without sputum, and a gradual increase in temperature characteristics. However, after trying to self-treat pneumonia in children and adults, these symptoms develop into severe consequences, such as severe cough with purulent discharge, abscess and a break of pus in the pleural cavity.
- Atypical pneumonia by signs completely "owes" a microorganism that has provoked its occurrence. Pneumonia in children and the older people, brought about by the ravages of mycoplasmas is accompanied by a sore throat, pain in the head and increase in the size of lymph nodes in the neck. The disease is caused by Legionella, can be characterized by diarrhea, disorders in the kidney and slow pulsation. After pneumonia there may be defects in the brain and cardiovascular system. Pneumonia treatment should be carried out immediately, as the mortality rate among patients with this diagnosis is extremely high.
How is pneumonia treated?
Human body reacts differently to the actions of infectious agents, respectively, in some cases of pneumonia in kids and adults, is slow, and in others it immediately progresses, leading to collapse of vital systems. The basis of the treatment of pneumonia is the use of antibiotics for pneumonia. Selection of the drug, its dosage and duration of application determined by the physician, depending on the patient's age, clinical features of pneumonia and associated diseases. Most often used for treatment of pneumonia requires a combination of two antibiotics. At present, for the pneumonia therapy, there are the following pharmacological groups of antibiotics: macrolides (Erythromycin, Biaxin, Rulide, Zithromax), penicillin and its derivatives (Amoxicillin, Amoxil, Augmentin, Ampicillin), cephalosporins (Suprax, Vantin, Omnicef, Сefixime, Cephalexin, Сeftin), fluoroquinolones (Ofloxacin, Noroxin, Maxaquin, Levaquin). The average duration of antibiotic therapy is at least 7-10 days. Therapy of viral pneumonia requires not only the purpose of antimicrobials, and medicaments with antiviral activity. If you have a cough with sputum doctor appoints expectorant and mucus-thinning remedies. With the development of dyspnea bronchodilators are also prescribed, most preferably, the use of inhaled medications (Ventolin, Pulmicort, Symbicort, Spiriva). The best way is inhalation using a nebulizer. Under indications there can be used infusion therapy. For high temperature patients are appointed antipyretics (Naprosyn, Indocin, Panadol Extra, Bayer ASA Aspirin). The primary symptoms of pneumonia need to enrich the diet of protein sources of food and vitamins B and C.
Complications after pneumonia
Timely detection of complications from pneumonia is the key to a full recovery. Unfortunately, they are more dangerous diseases than self pneumonia. Doctors are divided into two kinds of complications as pulmonary (pleurisy, pulmonary abscess, respiratory failure, apnea, pulmonary edema, chronic bronchitis, asthmatic element) and extrapulmonary (hepatitis, pericarditis, myocarditis, meningitis, cyanosis of the mucous membranes). It is important to diagnose complications and prescribe adequate treatment.
How to prevent pneumonia?
There are general and specific methods of prevention of pneumonia. Common include adherence to a healthy lifestyle, hardening, vitamins (Guduchi, Vitamin C, and Chyavanaprasha, Becadexamin and so on), eating fruits and vegetables, lack of contact with sick people. Special methods mean a pneumonia vaccine, receiving immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory drugs.