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What is pulmonary edema?

Pulmonarypulmonary edema edema is a pathological condition in which there is a stagnation of the liquid leaked beyond the blood vessels in the lung tissues. Illness generally occurs as a symptom or a complication of another very serious disease. Human lungs are composed of a plurality of alveoli, which are criss-crossing a large number of capillaries. The process of gas exchange ensures the normal functioning of the human body. Pulmonary edema occurs in the moment when the not air but fluid gets to alveolus. The stagnation of fluid in the alveoli can cause serious complications: violations of oxygen intake by patient and removing carbon dioxide. Malfunctions can easily cause oxygen starvation of the body. Extravascular fluid in lungs tends to be accumulated, which may even lead to death. That is why at the first sign of edema it is necessary to take action, because death can occur within a couple of minutes. There is also an acute pulmonary edema, which is characterized by a two- or three-hour development.

Different causes of pulmonary edema

In cardiology practice pulmonary edema may be complicated by a variety of diseases of the cardiovascular system: acute myocardial infarction, infective endocarditis, arrhythmias, hypertension, heart failure, aorta, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis. In pulmonology it may be associated with severe course of chronic bronchitis and lobar pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, asthma, tuberculosis, actinomycosis, tumors, pulmonary heart. What causes fluid in lungs? Its development is possible because of trauma of the chest, accompanied by crush syndrome, pleurisy, pneumothorax. In some cases, this condition appears in complication of infectious diseases that occur with severe intoxication: SARS, influenza, scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough, typhoid, tetanus and polio. Edema of lungs in infants may be associated with severe hypoxia, prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In nephrology illness can be caused by acute glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure; in gastroenterology - intestinal obstruction, liver cirrhosis, acute pancreatitis. Often, pulmonary edema develops as a result of poisoning by chemicals, intoxication by alcohol, nicotine, remedies; endogenous intoxication with extensive burns, sepsis, allergy.

Pulmonary edema symptoms

Such pulmonary edemacondition is not always developed suddenly and violently. In some cases, it is preceded by prodromal symptoms, including weakness, dizziness and headache, tightness in the chest, dry cough. These pulmonary edema signs may occur in a few minutes or hours before the development. Clinic cardiac asthma can develop at any time, but most often it occurs at night or early morning hours. The attack can be triggered by physical activity, psycho-emotional stress, colds, anxiety dreams, the transition to a horizontal position, and others. At the same time there is a sudden choking or paroxysmal cough, forcing the patient to sit down. It is accompanied by cyanosis of the lips and nails, cold sweat, arousal and motor restlessness, increased blood pressure, participation in the act of respiration auxiliary muscles. At the stage of alveolar pulmonary edema develops sudden respiratory failure, dyspnea, cyanosis, diffuse, facial puffiness, swelling of the neck veins. When breathing and coughing patient is released from the mouth foam, often has a pinkish hue due to the exudation of blood cells. For pulmonary edema there is rapidly growing lethargy, confusion, even coma. In end-stage blood pressure drops, breathing becomes shallow and intermittent, pulse - thready. The death of a patient with this state occurs due to asphyxia.

What humans know about pulmonary edema therapy?

Pulmonary pulmonary edemaedema threatens the life of the patient, so at first symptoms you should immediately call an ambulance. Everybody should know emergency measures in the pulmonary edema treatment. Since the attack begins, the first thing is to help take the semi-sitting position, tourniquet or cuff on a limb, hot foot bath, blood-letting, which contributes to a reduction in venous return to the heart. If necessary, the patient is transferred to the subsequent mechanical ventilation. To suppress the activity of the respiratory center in pulmonary edema shows the introduction of narcotic analgesics. To reduce the dehydration of lungs it is necessary to use diuretics (Lasix, Furosemide and others.). Reducing of afterload is achieved by preparations (Sodium Nitroprusside or Nitroglycerin). Under reduced pressure use medicines that increase cardiac contraction; if pulmonary embolism symptoms- remedies that prevent excessive blood clotting, or anticoagulants; if signs of bronchospasm - steroids (Prednisolone); infections - broad-spectrum antibiotics fluoroquinolones (Levaquin, Maxaquin, Ofloxacin, Noroxin). According to the testimony people are appointed cardiac glycosides (Lanoxin), antihypertensives (Adalat, Aldactone, Amlopres-AT, Caduet, Altace and so on), antiarrhythmics, thrombolytic, hormonal, antibacterial, antihistamines (Clarinex, Allegra, Claritin, others), infusion of protein and colloidal solutions. After cupping of an attack of pulmonary edema specialists cure the underlying disease.

Prediction and prevention of pulmonary edema

Regardless of the etiology, prognosis is always very serious. In acute alveolar pulmonary edema mortality reaches 20-50%; if swelling arises against myocardial infarction or anaphylactic shock, mortality exceeds 90%. Even after successful relief there are possible complications: pulmonary edema causes ischemic lesions of the internal organs, congestive pneumonia, pulmonary collapse, pulmonary fibrosis. Early identification of the underlying condition and complete treatment under the expert guidance of a corresponding profile (pulmonologist, cardiologist, infectious diseases, pediatrics, neurology, otolaryngology, nephrology, gastroenterology and others) contributes to the favorable therapy.