Information about renal failure and its types
Renal failure (or kidney failure) is a condition in which the kidneys as a result of any disease cannot carry out their work sufficiently for the body. This leads to malfunction of organs and tissues. Renal insufficiency can be acute and chronic. In acute renal failure the kidney function is disturbed quickly due to the heavy renal tissue injury. The reasons for this defeat may be both in the kidney (cell death under the influence of poisons, surrogates of alcohol, drugs, acute inflammation or lack of blood supply) and outside (heart failure, massive blood loss, etc.). Fortunately, this process is often reversible. Chronic renal failure occurs when the kidney disease is slowly progressing, when the amount of functioning kidney tissue is reduced gradually and usually irreversible. Generally inflammation (most often - glomerulonephritis), metabolic, systemic, tumor, cardiovascular and genetic diseases may lead to this. In the initial stages of chronic kidney disease process can be monitored using an appropriate diet and medication. With the development of the disease, patients require regular kidney dialysis using apparatus "artificial kidney", and ideally they should be carried out kidney transplant.
Symptoms of renal failure
Many of kidney disease symptoms are easily to confuse with a lumbar spinal disease or gynecological diseases on the early stage. We will talk first about the signs of kidney failure, acute form:
- stomach pain;
- bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract;
- decreased amount of urine;
- swelling in arms, legs and sometimes on the whole body;
- as a result of water retention in the body increases the body weight quickly;
- in more severe forms - acute respiratory failure invoked by pulmonary edema; tremor (shaking) of the leg muscles and arms.
Chronic renal failure has these symptoms of kidney problems:
- concentrated urine;
- eventually growing thirst;
- becomes more frequent urination;
- in advanced stages there is itching, swelling of the limbs, cramps, and the so-called restless leg syndrome;
- shortness of breath after physical exertion;
- blurred vision caused by hypertension;
- nocturnal asthma attacks, chest pain;
- frequent hiccups and vomiting;
- pain in the lumbar region;
- urine dark red color;
- swelling under the eyes.
Causes of renal disease
Today, doctors mark out the following reasons for kidney failure:
- diabetes (a metabolic disorder);
- high blood pressure;
- hereditary disease (polycystic, kidney hypoplasia);
- kidney disease (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, etc.);
- pathology during pregnancy;
- disease of the immune system and rheumatic (lupus, scleroderma, vasculitis);
- kidney stones, hindering urination;
- an enlarged prostate in men, also makes it difficult urination;
- cardiovascular diseases;
- poisoning toxins and drugs, lead and mercury, alcoholism;
- cyst on kidney;
- bites of poisonous insects and snakes;
- kidney infection;
- dehydration due to sweating too much or prolonged diarrhea, or love for salt and salty foods.
People, who have the above-mentioned diseases or addictions, are at risk and in need of constant monitoring of the health of the doctor and the implementation of its recommendations. This will help to prevent the occurrence of disease.
Renal failure treatment
Treatment of kidney problems is quite complex and is carried out in the hospital. According to the research doctor determines what causes kidney failure, and eliminates various methods and drugs. This is the main task at the initial stage of therapy.
Chronic renal failure, however, as an acute, involves the removal of the causative diseases of the kidneys and the restoration of their functions. Doctor may appoint the following activities:
1. The best and most effective treating of acute renal failure - the blood dialysis.
2. Eliminate the causes of the disease:
- if there is a blockage of renal arteries, specialist can appoint their bypass surgery;
- in the case of stones or tumors in the kidney, to restore normal patency of the urinary tract there is assigned surgery;
- if illness is caused by persistent hypertension, antihypertensive drugs may be prescribed (Amlopres-AT, Accupril, Azor, Caduet, Benicar, Clonidine, Coreg, Hyzaar, Inderal, Lotensin, Lozol, Lotrel, Serpina, Toprol XL, Trental, Trandate, Vasotec, Zebeta and many others preparations);
- with disturbed metabolism (such as diabetes) doctors implement measures as diet to reduce and normalize blood sugar and assign antidiabetic means (Insulin Glargine (Lantus), Amaryl, Actos, Avandaryl, Diabecon, Exermet GM, DBC-24, Galvus, Glucotrol XL, Glucophage, Karela, Meshashringi, Nuzide, Precose, Triexer, Starlix, etc.);
- humans with this illness usually have high level of cholesterol, which may increase heart disease risk, so it is better to take medicament for lower cholesterol level (Niaspan, Zetia, Lovaza, Aggrenox, Coumadin, Crestor, others);
- at detection of autoimmune diseases (lupus, scleroderma, etc.) the patient takes medications - hormones and cytostatics which inhibit cell division;
- if there are symptoms of anemia, person is administered iron preparations, vitamins, ayurvedic (Neurobion Forte (B1+B6+B12), Amalaki, Ashwagandha, Punarnava, so on);
- at a painful shock people use antishock antibacterial therapy and hormonal therapy;
- to relieve swelling and to stimulate the production of urine, it is necessary to prescribe diuretics (Aldactone, Avalide, Co-Diovan, Lasix, Torsemide, Triamterene, Zestoretic, Hydrochlorothiazide and so on ) that help lower blood pressure, displays the body of excess salt and water;
- to normalize the acid-base and water-electrolyte balance patient takes potassium, sodium, calcium, and other elements (Vitamin C, Riconia, Gokshura, Cipcal and etc.);
- specialist assign to follow strictly metered amount of fluid intake (as much urine came the previous day);
- the patient is shown quiet: change of work and rest, without increased physical activity.
In any form and kidney failure stages patient is required a special diet with metered consumption of protein and potassium, which reduces the load on the kidneys to slow down progression of the disease and significantly improves the general patient's condition. Special menu normalizes kidney function, lowers blood pressure, relieves swelling, and removes nitrogen compounds.