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What is sinusitis and why it occurs?

Sinusitis sinusitisis a disease characterized by acute or chronic inflammation focuses in the area of the sinuses (paranasal sinuses), which, in fact, defines its name. Sinusitis develops on the background of common bacterial or viral infections, and allergy, and in some cases micro plasma or fungal infection. The reasons for the occurrence of sinusitis are a lot. But the main - is an infection: bacteria or viruses enter the maxillary sinus through the nasal cavity (mouth, pharynx) or through the bloodstream and cause inflammation. The development of sinusitis is predisposing conditions that violate the nasal breathing: congenital malformations of anatomical structures of the nose, deviated septum, vasomotor rhinitis, hypertrophic rhinitis (nasal turbinate increase) in children - adenoids, hay fever. Violations of immunity and late or incorrect treatment of acute respiratory viral infection, rhinitis create almost 100-percent guarantee of developing this disease. The bacterium is called "staph," is a long time to live in the nasopharynx and does not manifest itself, but under unfavorable conditions, such as the common cold causes inflammation in the sinuses. But most sinus infection is provoked by SARS, influenza, parainfluenza, infection, penetrating from the patients teeth, allergies (allergic sinusitis).

Sinus infection symptoms

Knowing what main sinusitis symptoms, you can just turn to the experienced otolaryngologist. Symptoms of acute sinusitis are flowing as follows:

  • nasal or hoarse voice;
  • fever;
  • purulent rhinitis;
  • headache, get rid of that does not help the pain medicine;
  • edema and swelling of the face;
  • fatigue, weakness and pallor, which are caused by insufficient intake of oxygen;
  • nasal congestion for a long time already.

It is also necessary to know what signs of sinus infection generally in chronic sinusitis. Typically, sinusitis is converted in the chronic stage, followed by all of the above symptoms, but in a less pronounced manner and cured by various kinds of sinus infection remedies. Exacerbations of chronic diseases can be triggered by the following factors:

  • a head injury;
  • various dental diseases, which occur for a long time;
  • lowered immunity, which may be the cause of such serious illnesses as immunodeficiency or diabetes;
  • medications that cause a decrease in the body's resistance to various diseases;
  • polyps in the sinuses and nose;
  • AIDS and other immune system diseases;
  • a deviated septum;
  • infections of various origin (viral, fungal or bacterial);
  • Smoking, taking drugs or alcoholism;
  • Contact with a person suffering from sinusitis.

Of course, a person who knows and agree that the symptoms of this disease are extremely unpleasant. Usually, the reason for the appeal to the experienced otolaryngologist are signs as sinus headache, nasal congestion, runny nose, shortness of nasal breathing, cough, feeling of pressure in the eyes, nose or cheeks.

Risk factors for sinusitis

  • Formation sinusitisof the paranasal sinuses in children. During the period of maturation of the immune system, all children are susceptible to respiratory infections. Infants and young children exposed to colds every 1 - 2 months and can have up to 8 - 12 attacks a year. Otitis media as ear infection is associated with sinusitis. However, a true sinus infection is very rare in children younger than 9 years.
  • The elderly also have a certain risk for the illness development. Their mucosa usually less age produces secretion, causing dry nasal passages. Elderly have reduced cough and also gag reflexes, and weakened immune system. All this increases the risk for various serious respiratory infections than young people.
  • Humans with asthma or also allergies are at possible higher risk for non communicable inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. The risk of developing sinusitis is higher in people with severe asthma. The combination of nasal polyps, asthma, sensitivity to aspirin has high risk of the chronic or recurrent acute sinusitis.
  • Some hospitalized sick patients have a higher possibility of developing sinusitis, in particular people with head injuries, are on mechanical ventilation, patients with compromised immune systems and are in conditions that require insertion of a tube through the nose.

Sinusitis treatment

Therapy sinusitisinvolves removal of sinusitis infections, sinus pressure, reduction in the rate of drainage and ventilation of the sinuses (paranasal) and withdrawal symptoms. If you have a cold and runny nose, accompanied by symptoms of sinusitis, it is worth a few days to stay at home, do not go out in cold weather. To ease sinus congestion and normalize general condition, you should take a warm drink, warm baths, inhalations with essential oils of peppermint, eucalyptus, pine and others. If the temperature is increased, it is possible to use drugs to relieve inflammation and antipyretics (Naprosyn, Aleve, Diclofenac, Tylenol, Panadol Extra, Zupar, so on). The main method of sinus infection treatment is the use of vasoconstrictor agents. Due to these medications, eliminating swelling of the nasal mucosa, there is a restoration of normal breathing nose and paranasal sinus ventilation. Apply any vasoconstrictor not longer than 5-7 days. For sinusitis ENT - doctor can often recommend the use of medicines with antihistamine effect (Zyrtec, Phenergan, Claritin, Periactin, Clarinex, Benadryl, Allegra, etc.), especially the use of such medication is necessary if allergens are identified. Antihistamines reduce swelling and inflammation in the sinuses. If illness occurs, patients are assigned antibiotics for sinus infection belonging to the group of cephalosporins (Ceclor Cd, Cefixime Oral Suspension, efadroxil, Cephalexin, eftin, Keflex, Suprax, others), penicillins (Amoxicillin, Amoxil, Augmentin, Ampicillin, and so on) and, moreover, macrolides (Biaxin, Erythromycin, Rulide, Zithromax and many others). The duration of antibiotic treatment is 10-14 days. The duration of antibiotics applying for sinus relief, as well as their dosage is appointed by a doctor. If drug treatment of sinusitis has no result, surgical treatment is prescribed.